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カテゴリ:今日の5つの上級英単語( 44 )

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 24

金曜日、いよいよ待ちに待った週末です!

今日は旦那は有給休暇。旧友たちとウォータールーの戦いを記念してゆかりのあるパブをめぐってpub crawl。昼間から一日中ビールにひたる予定なのだそうです。何で「ウォータールーの戦い」かというと全く特別に意味はなく、要は理由はなんでもいいからboy's day outを楽しもう、ということなんでしょうね。

私はというと昨年9月から習いはじめたピアノの今週の宿題課題、God rest ye merry gentlemanの仕上げと簡略化バージョンのFür Eliseを頑張って練習します。

皆さんも良い週末をお過ごしくださいね。

さて、前置きはさておき。

今日の5つの上級英単語は:


antithesis
cache
temerity
amorous
progeny


antithesis /ænˈtɪθəsɪs/ [n] :

1) the exact opposite 正反対
James, the gregarious twin, was the antithesis of George, the reticent one.
2) a contrast between two things 対照
There is an antithesis of the needs pf the state and the needs of the people.


cache /kæʃ/ [n] a secret hidden place 隠し場所

Through fortuitous remark, the cache of the art thieves was discovered.
*a cache of stolen cashと覚えましょう 笑。別にコンピューターのキャッシュメモリーの意味もあります。


temerity /təˈmerəti/ [n] extremely confident behaviour that people are likely to consider rude 無謀、あつかましさ

For having the temerity to declaim against the major leader, the freshman senator was given the worst committee assignment.
He had the temerity of accusing me of stealing his ides!
I didn't have the temerity of speaking up in front of the experts.


amorous /ˈæmərəs/ [adj] : showing sexual desire and love towards someone

Mary rejected Tony's amorous advances.


progeny /ˈprɒdʒəni/ [n] : offspring 子孫、子供たち

Mules are hybrids, the progeny of a female horse and a male donkey.
Sometimes I wonder why we bother paying this big mortgage striving to stay in black, while Council tenants nearby with an array of their progenies march out of their 3 beds TOWNHOUSE to get into their CAR!
*集合体と考える時には単数で構成要素を考える時には複数扱いになります。



以上です。次はPart 5の復習ですよ。

by uk_alien | 2015-06-19 10:00 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 23

木曜日、週末が近づいてきました。ここのところロンドンにしては蒸し暑い日が続いております。きっと日本の気候で言えば「5月のすがすがしさ」、というレベルに違いないと思うのですが、慣れてしまうと贅沢なもので、「暑い、だるい...」と嘆いております。

一日中だらりんとしていたいところですが、わが身に鞭打って今日も英単語学習(にっこり)。

今日の5つの上級英単語は


bulwark

reticent

altruistic

coterie

cupidity



bulwark /ˈbʊlwək/ [n]

1) something serving as a defense or a safeguard 防護者(者)

2) a wall or an embankment raised as a defense 砦、防波堤、堡塁

3) [usually plural] the part of a shipside that is above the level of the deck (see the picture below)

f0045624_00400964.jpg

Social security is the main bulwark against senior poverty.



reticent /ˈretɪsnt/ [adj] : quiet, reserved, restrained 寡黙な、抑制した

When it comes to my private life, I become extremely reticent.


altruistic /ˌæltruˈɪstɪk/ [adj] putting others first 利他主義的な

In the Postman's Park in St Martin's Le-Grand a number of tablets are displayed commemorating ordinary people's acts of altruistic heroism.


coterie/ˈkəʊtəri/ [n] : A small group of people with the same interest, doing things together exclusively 仲間、党、グループ

The queen surrounded herself with a coterie of loyal advisers.


cupidity /kjuːˈpɪdəti/ [n] : burning desire to have more wealth than you need; greed 金銭欲


Proclaiming morality while practicing cupidity, states have tried to hit the sweet spot of cigarette taxes — high enough to maximize revenue without excessively discouraging smoking.

*ウォールストリートのゴードン・ゲッコーの名言、"Greed is good"を"Cupidity is cool"と置き換えて覚えましょう。



以上です。次回はPart 4の復習ですよ。


by uk_alien | 2015-06-18 10:00 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 22

水曜日、週中です。何度も繰り返しますが、「覚えきれない...」と思うのではなく、「簡単に覚えられないのは当たり前、目にする機会を増やしている」と思って学習していきましょうね。


今日の5つの上級英単語は:

paragon
asperity
epithet
cursory
interloper


paragon /ˈpærəɡən/ [n] : model of excellence 模範、手本

The town planners looked upon their utopia as a paragon for other communities.
I make no claim to be a paragon.
He was never the paragon of virtue she had expected.
Darcy, misunderstood to be a proud man, turned out to be a paragon of excellence and character.


asperity/æˈsperəti/ [n] : (Uncountable) : the fact of being harsh or severe, due to anger, impatience, or moodiness, in treating/speaking to someone. 辛辣、無愛想、荒々しさ

After a hard day, she hung up on him with a touch of asperity.
We were surprised at the display of asperity from our normally phlegmatic neighbour.
The asperity of unfinished edge


epithet /ˈepɪθet/ [n] : 1) a descriptive adjective/phrase 形容辞、あだ名、通称 2) offensive words/phrases 蔑称

Resorting to the use of racial epithets to insult others is the lowest form of releasing one's tension or anxiety. Grow up.
The film is long and dramatic but does not quite earn the epithet, epic.


cursory /ˈkɜːsəri/ [adj] : done quickly and without giving enough attention to details; perfunctory 通りいっぺんの

A cursory glance/examination/inspection
Homes took a cursory glance at the cryptic message and decoded it instantly.
After a cursory examination, the GP prescribed me a course of painkiller and dismissed me.


interloper /ˈɪntələʊpə(r)/ [n] : an unauthorised person 不法侵入者

A modern apartment complex, fobs are effective to keep out an interloper; however, tailgating is always a problem and difficult to avoid.
When seeding, do it in a straight line so that it will be easy to pinch out interlopers later on.



最後まで学習できたあなたは偉い(笑)!

次のポストはPart 3の復習です。

by uk_alien | 2015-06-17 10:00 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 21

今日の上級英単語は:

abrogate
preclude
extrinsic
declaim
fetter

手ごわい(笑)。

でも昨晩、vocaburary.comのSpelling Bee機能を使ってこれらの単語を含め6月リストのスペリング練習をしたから結構親近感があったりする。このvocaburary.comは結構気に入って使っている。便利。誰か日本の受験者諸君のためにこういう無料サイトをつくってあげてね。

abrogate /ˈæbrəɡeɪt/ [v] : revoke or abolish formally -- used when serious rights, responsibilities are discussed in a legal or political context 廃止する、取り消す

to abrogate one's responsibility to sb/sth
to abrogate sb's right to do sth

The rights of the accused have been abrogated.
The wealthy uncle decided to abrogate his inane nephew-s sinecure.
North Korea abrogated the agreement when it felt able to do so and has gone on to test nuclear weapons.
If we look away from their destruction, we abrogate our duty to preserve them for future generation.
The moment you establish religious requirement for civil rule, you have abrogated the democracy, by establishing a state that controls with religious law.
The moment you acquire a citizenship elsewhere, your Japanese citizenship will be abrogated.


preclude /prɪˈkluːd/ [v] : prevent 不可能にする、妨げる

Lack of time precluded any further discussion.
His disability precluded him from signing up for the army.
He hoped to continue as leader, after a contest, but internal disquiet precluded that.
His long imprisonment precluded him from trusting anyone but himself.

extrinsic /eksˈtrɪnsɪk/ [adj] : foreign, coming from outside, not connected to the essential nature 外部からの、外来的な

Extrinsic evidence independently secured through skillful investigation
Collectors avidly sought the rare coin for its extrinsic value.
Extrinsic factors
When the goal involves innovation and creativity, then extrinsic drivers tend to be ineffective and even counter-effective.
"A powerful, intrinsic motive was crowded out by a weaker, extrinsic one," they concluded.
The impact of extrinsic reward, such as money and attention, while important, is ephemeral and limited.

declaim /dɪˈkleɪm/ [v] : to say sth loudly; to speak loudly and forcefully about sth you feel strong about especially in public 演説する、激しく非難する

She declaimed the famous opening speech of the play.
He declaimed against the evils of alcohol.
Preachers on the street declaiming evils of modern society were harassing passers-by.

fetter /ˈfetə(r)/ [v] to restrict, to shackle 足かせをかける、拘束する

Going forward, in order to put fetters on the ferocious appetite of this pandemic, we must not focus solely on a reactionary response.
Prisoners were transported with their feet fettered.
Plato argued that for most of us, our interpretations of reality are based on an equally fettered experience. <-なつかしいなぁ、これ。日本の大学時代にならった「洞窟の比喩」だ。

と、今日はこれまで。abrogateが手ごわい気がする...。

by uk_alien | 2015-06-16 10:00 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 20

おはようございます。月曜日ですねぇ。今週も頑張って少しずつ難しい単語を覚えていきましょう!

今日の5つの上級英単語は:

valour (valor)
sinecure
complicity
liquidation
recant

です。

valour /ˈvælə(r)/ [n] Uncountable : great courage, especially in war 勇気、武勇
Acts of valour
The Victoria Cross is Britain's highest military decoration for valour.
No one was doubting the valour of those who served in the war.
*下の写真はイギリスのThe Victoria Cross、ヴィクトリア十字章。「イギリス及び英連邦王国構成国の軍人に対し授与される最高の戦功章(ウィキペディアより)」。For Valourの刻印が見えます。
f0045624_03143134.jpg
sinecure /ˈsɪnɪkjʊə(r)/ [n] : A job that you are paid for even though it involves little or no work
Having experienced little hardship in their lives, many young people dream of having a sinecure but leading life of a jet-setter.
*一体日本語訳は何だろうと思って調べてみたら、「閑職、おいしい仕事」とありました。なるほど。
f0045624_03264108.jpg
complicity /kəmˈplɪsəti/ [n] Uncountable : Partnership in wrongdoing
Danny had confessed to complicity in the killing of his brother-in-law.
Proceeding on the premise that the broker was guilty of complicity in the swindle, the detective followed his surreptitiously.
To be guilty of complicity in the murder
Evident complicity between the two brothers
She was charged with complicity.
FIFA tried to shield its leader from complicity but failed.
*「共謀、共犯」と日本語訳にはあります。犯罪、法廷の文脈で使われます。

liquidation /ˌlɪkwɪˈdeɪʃn/ [n] Uncountable : unlawful and premeditated killing of a competitor
After a liquidation of the gang leader, a mammoth conflict arouse among his ambitious lieutenants.
Danny was tricked into blaming a fried for the liquidation of his brother-in-law, thereby establishing himself as an accomplice.
*破産・倒産や債務返済の意味ではよくききますが、「競争相手の殺人」という意味があるとは知りませんでした。

recant /rɪˈkænt/ [v] withdraw previous statements
Though Danny later recanted his confession, he was found culpable and jailed.
The charges against him were dropped after the key witness recanted her story.
The actress recanted her vicious remarks about her colleague.
*法廷や裁判の文脈でよく使われる単語。「取り消す、撤回する」

以上でした。Part 20、終わりましたねぇ。ということは100語学んだ、ということですよね。今度は復習セッションを交えようかな...。まるっきり忘れてる単語もあるけど意外と覚えていたりするものですよ。



by uk_alien | 2015-06-15 11:00 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 19

一週間があっという間にたちました。金曜日!週末だ!と叫んだのがつい昨日のよう...。

さて、今日の5つの上級英単語は:

raze
scurry
incisive
precipitate
stentorian

です。

raze /reɪz/ [v] : destroy completely 完全に破壊する
The village has been razed to the ground.
Perhaps Croydon as well as Crawley should be razed and rebuilt anew.
*eraseと語源が同じだとありました。buildingやtownなどに使い、「ぶち壊して消し去ってしまう」という意味だそうです。

scurry /ˈskʌri/ run like a mouse 小走りに急ぐ
She said goodbye and scurried back to work.
*これは絶対に見聞きしているけど一度も辞書を調べたことがなかった単語。カニや人、昆虫などに使えます。ボスの後ろでわたわたしている男はscurrying aroundといえるようです。

incisive /ɪnˈsaɪsɪv/ [adj] sharp, decisive and direct; showing clear thoughts and good understanding of what's important, and the ability to express this 鋭敏な、単刀直入の、痛烈な
Restaurant reviews are often as incisive as a Japanese sward.
An incisive comment/criticism/analysis
An incisive mind
*incisors(切歯)と同じ語源でto cutの意味からきているそうです。

precipitate /prɪˈsɪpɪteɪt/ [v] 1) bring about abruptly 突然引き起こす 2) hurl or throw violently 3) fall vertically, sharply or headlong
His resignation precipitated a leadership crisis.
There has been no negative oil price shock, for example, unlike in past periods when such shocks precipitated recessions.
The assassination of the president precipitated the country into war.
Our economy precipitated into complete ruin.
*その他に、[化学]沈殿する、[物理学]凝結するの意味があります。また、形容詞だと「hasty - 早計な」の意味があります。

stentorian /stenˈtɔːriən/ (of a voice) loud and powerful 大声の
A theatrical stentorian voice...BlackadderのSense and Senility

raze->bulldoze, scurry->mouse, incisive->as sharp as a Samurai sward, precipitate->war, stentorian->'Sense and Senility'で覚える算段。

一週間お疲れ様でした。また来週!


by uk_alien | 2015-06-13 01:16 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 18

今日の5つの上級英単語は、

inveigh
relegate
repulse
supine
inchoate

です。

inveigh (against) /ɪnˈveɪ/ [v] criticize fiercely 痛烈に批判する
Though most critiques inveighed against the book, its commercial success was incontrovertible.
*発音注意。「ヴぇい」にアクセントがあります。inveigh againstでセットで覚えます。

relegate /ˈrelɪɡeɪt/ demote 左遷する
He clung on to his job despite having been relegated to a junior position.
*発音注意。アクセントのある第一音節は「ぅれれ」ではなくて、「ぅれり」です。relegateはフットボールファンならきいたことあるかもしれませんね。下位リーグに落とされるときに受身で使われます。

repulse /rɪˈpʌls/ drive away 追い払う
The soldier went into skirmish to repulse the insurgents.
*repulseはmake sb feel disgustedの意味でよく見聞きしますが、このdrive awayという意味は知らなかったので載せました。

supine /ˈsuːpaɪn/ lying flat on your back あおむけの
a spine position
*発音注意。「すー」と伸ばして、「パイン」にアクセントがあります。背骨のspineを思い浮かべてだらっと上向きに寝転がっているイメージで「すーぱいん」と結び付けましょう。ちなみに反対はproneです。

f0045624_04070214.jpg


inchoate /ɪnˈkəʊət/ [adj] : just begun to form 始まったばかりの、初期の、未完成な

Vague inchoate ideas
Often, their policies are muddy, their motivations inchoate.
The writer's ideas for his new book were inchoate. Though he had a vague idea how his story should pan out, but he had no specific details.
*発音注意。「こぅ」にアクセントがあります。

以上、今日はさっぱりと済ませます。どれくらい覚えられるかなぁ。


by uk_alien | 2015-06-11 04:18 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 17

今住んでいるアパートメントを売りに出しているのですが、都心という場所柄、仕事帰りに見物に来る人が多く、昨日も勉強したにもかかわらず更新が出来ませんでした。失礼、失礼。

さて、今日の5つの上級英単語は、


surmise
curtail
premise
incredulous
propitious


surmise /səˈmaɪz/ [v] : to conjuncture (今日の5つの上級英単語Part 12で勉強しましたね), to guess 推量する、推測する
We can only surmise what might have happened to the missing aircraft.
From the wife's credulous face, I surmised she was not in the know after all.
They were never found; the officials surmised they has drowned before reaching the shore and closed the case.
f0045624_17242561.jpg
ちなみに、名詞になるとアクセントが第一音節に移るので注意/ˈsɜːmaɪz/

curtail /kɜːˈteɪl/ [v] : to stop, to limit, to cut short スピーチ時間などを〉切り詰める; 短縮する省略する; 〈費用などを〉削減する; 〈権利などを〉縮小する,そぐ
The meeting was curtailed due to the urgent phone call.
Their honeymoon was curtailed due to their friend's sudden death back home.
Personal freedom is curtailed in many countries
The space programme has been curtailed significantly since its heyday.
The local governments were forced to curtail their expenditure.

premise /ˈpremɪs/ [n] a: 1) statement that forms the basis for an argument 前提、根拠
His argument is based on a false premise.
His reasoning is based on the premise that all people are equally capable of good and evil.
2) a starting point of a (story) plot
The premise of 'Life of Pi' is a boy stranded on a life boat with a Bengal tiger after a shipwreck.

*ちなみにpremisesと複数形になってbusiness/commercial/industrial premises (the building and land near to it that a business owns or uses)の意味になります。

incredulous /ɪnˈkredjələs/ [adj] unbelievable, skeptical 信じがたい
an incredulous look
f0045624_17453883.jpg
この顔とincredulousを一致させ眉をひそめ「It's so wrong I can't believe it」と唱えましょう。ちなみにincredibleは眉をひらいて「Wow, it's so good I can't believe it」です。

propitious /prəˈpɪʃəs/ [adj] : favourable, likely to produce a successful result 好都合な
When a president is in crisis, it is usually a propitious time for political opponents to pounce.
The propitious gales sped us along.
A propitious time/day to do something
According to the fortune teller, this is not the propitious year for me to make any big decisions.
Propitious omens
This is a propitious opportunity.
A New Year's Day - A propitious day to sell copious auspicious cats.
f0045624_17571485.jpg


と、今日はここまで。

surmise->detective, curtail->cut short, premise->logic, incredulous->Spok, propitious time to sell auspicious catsと覚える予定。ちょん。


by uk_alien | 2015-06-09 18:19 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 16

金曜日!週末だー!

今週最後の5つの上級英単語は:

importune
surreptitious

eventuate
incontrovertible
subjugate

です。なぜ二つに分かれているかというと、importuneとsurreptitiousはなんとなくイメージが薄いので特別扱い(笑)。残りの3語はなんとなく意味がつかめる単語だと思います。

importune /ˌɪmpɔːˈtjuːn/ 発音注意 [v] : to beg sb for sth persistently and urgently しつこく要求する
Lobbyists are always importuning the state for favours.
The woman importuned the judge to release her husband from jail.
Andy Dufresne importuned to fund the library over a long period and his effort eventuated in innumerable books donated to the Shawshank prison.
*うーん、いい映画でしたね、Shawshank Redemption。
f0045624_00483483.jpeg
発音はチューンにアクセントがあるので注意。

surreptitious /ˌsʌrəpˈtɪʃəs/ 発音注意 [adj] : done secretly, quickly and sneakily 人目を忍んで行う
In their clandestine operation, hidden cameras were used to collect surreptitious recordings.
She sneaked a surreptitious glance at her watch.
Surreptitious activities, missions, recordings, operations...

f0045624_01002169.jpg

eventuate /ɪˈventʃueɪt/ [v] to result, end 起こる、帰着する
Your refusal must eventuate in your death.
But the Tsunami never eventuated and they were able to return.
*これは"eventually"の意味からなんとなく想像できますよね。

incontrovertible /ˌɪnkɒntrəˈvɜːtəbl/ [adj} : 100% undeniably true 議論の余地のない
incontrovertible evidence/proof
He believes the precedent created by more than 800 years of religious practice is incontrovertible.
When it comes to global warming, the absence of incontrovertible evidence does not justify inaction.
*in=not + controvert 否定する + able = 否定できない = incontrovertibleとうわけで、まどろっこしいわりに結構簡単。でもなんだかBlackadderがでっちあげた単語のようにきこえるのは私だけ?

subjugate /ˈsʌbdʒuɡeɪt/ [v] : repress, make sb subservient 服従/従属させる
The persistent force to subjugate women still prevails in our society.
The subjugation of Ireland by Oliver Cromwell

と、今日はこれまで。Have a great weekend, everybody!



by uk_alien | 2015-06-06 01:33 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

今日の5つの上級英単語 Part 15

今日はロンドンはめずらしく快晴。風もなく暖かくてとてもいい天気でした。

さて、今日の5つの上級英単語は、

egregious
timorous
truncate
jaunty
fractious

私にとっては意味がわからないまま文脈読みをする曖昧な単語たちです。

egregious /ɪˈɡriːdʒiəs/ [adj] : extremely bad, appalling 言語道断な
an egregious error/mistake/behaviour/crime/conduct
Some of the most recent deforestation sometimes seems blatant and egregious.
What could be more egregious than fathers receiving paid time off from work to spend time with their new born babies?
If we moved again just because we fancied a sunny private terrace, paying heck a lot in cost, and then found it to be an egregious error of judgement, I would not be able to forgive myself forever.

timorous/ˈtɪmərəs/ [adj] : nervous, shy and timid (in social occasions) 気が弱い
He was small in stature, timorous and shy by nature.
I am timorous, introverted and fairly autistic. That's me.

truncate /trʌŋˈkeɪt/ [v] : to shorten きり縮める、切って短くする
The article was published in truncated form.
Further discussion was truncated by the arrival of tea.

f0045624_03212269.jpg
jaunty /ˈdʒɔːnti/ [adj] : showing that you are feeling confident and pleased with yourself, lively 陽気な、いきな
A hat set at a jaunty angle.
A jaunty lad
f0045624_03240220.jpg
*これうちの義理ママの犬の名前(笑)

fractious /ˈfrækʃəs/ picking fights and being stubborn 気難しい
Children often get fractious and tearful when tired.
While Scotland is being fractious, England appears to remain phlegmatic
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以上、Moving - an egregious error of judgement?, timorous me, meeting->truncated, jaunty Robert in Sting, fractious Scotlandと覚える予定。

by uk_alien | 2015-06-05 03:31 | 今日の5つの上級英単語

カメラ小僧のイギリス帰化人。愛機はライカMモノクローム。はたと思い立って始めた大人ピアノ初心者で目下楽しくて仕方がないピアノ練習と音楽理論の勉強をブログに綴る日々 ー London UK


by uk_alien
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